**Voltage transformer (VT)** measures the voltage at the bus of relaying applications like distance relays, directional overcurrent relays. The principle of a **voltage transformer** is similar to the normally used transformer.

Hence, voltage transformer(VT) equivalent circuit can be represented as shown in figure

Typically, the secondary voltage of the **Voltage Transformer(VT)** is standardized to 110 V (ac). Hence, if the primary voltage increases, then turn ratio N_{1}: N_{2} also increases and the transformer becomes large as the area increases.

To make the **voltage transformer(VT)** of small size and less costly, a **capacitance potential divider** is used as shown in the given below fig. Thus, a reduced voltage is fed to the primary of the transformer. This reduces the size of the voltage transformer(VT) that leads to the development of **coupling** **capacitor voltage transformers (CCVT).**

## Role Of Tuning Reactor In Voltage Transformer

Let’s take an ideal transformer, the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit of coupling capacitor voltage transformer (CCVT) is shown in fig

It is now clear that there is impedance Z_{th} due to the **capacitance divider**, it has some effects on the voltage received by the relay. A tuning inductor is connected to compensate for this voltage drop to achieve a **high level of accuracy**. The value of **tuning inductors** is so chosen that it compensates for the ‘net C’ at power frequency (50Hz). The phasor diagram across the resistive load is as shown in the above-given figure.

From the respectively equivalent above circuit, it is clear that, if **\omega L=\frac { 1 }{ \omega (C_1+C_2) } ** then the voltage drop across C is neutralized and the relay can easily measure the actual voltage.

## CCVT In Power Line Communication

The capacitance potential divider also used for the dual purpose of providing a shunt path to the **high-frequency signal** used in power line carrier communication. Mostly, **CCVT is used in HV/EHV systems** where carrier line communication is used. High frequency i.e. **Radio Frequency (RF)** signals of range between 50 – 400 kHz can be coupled to the power line for communication.

At high frequency, the capacitive shunt impedance is very small because the frequency is inversely proportional to the impedance and hence these signals can be tapped by the potential divider. A small **drainage reactor** is connected in series with the capacitance divider to block the path to ground for the RF signal. There is a very small impedance at high frequencies. Thus, the role of capacitance potential divider at power frequency is not split into difference (compromised). On the other hand, at RF, the impedance of the drainage reactor is large and it** blocks the RF signal.**

RF signal is blocked by the** inductive nature **of compensating reactance and transformer leakage reactance. This signal is then exploited by a** tuning** pack which provides a low impedance to the RF signal.

## Transient Response of CCVT

CCVT equivalent circuit consisting of an R-L-C. If the transformer is considered to be ideal it can be described by the equation given below

v(t)=Ri+\frac { 1 }{ C_{eq} } \int _{ -\infty }^{ t }{ idt+L\frac { di }{ dt } }

The corresponding differential equation is given by

\frac { dv }{ dt } =R\frac { di }{ dt } +\frac { 1 }{ C_{eq} } i+L\frac { d^2i }{ d^2t }

For a solid three-phase fault near to the CCVT bus at t=t_{0}. v(t) = 0 for t\ge t_0. Thus, during fault

\frac { R }{ L } \frac { di }{ dt } +\frac { 1 }{ LC_{eq} } i+\frac { d^2i }{ d^2t } =0

This equation is expressed in standard form as follows \frac { d^2i }{ d^2t } +2\zeta \omega_n +\omega^2_n i=0 where \omega_n is natural frequency in radians per second and \zeta is the damping constant.

By comparing both the equations thus \omega_n =\frac { 1 }{ LC_{eq} } and 2\zeta \omega_n =\frac { R }{ L } Because of the property of tuning reactor \omega =\frac { 1 }{ \sqrt { LC_{eq} } } =2\pi \times f_0

The response of the equation depends upon the damping \zeta and \omega_n and point on the voltage waveform where the fault strikes. Such transients are known as subsistence transients. The figure shows the subsistence transients of CCVT. Distance relays accuracy can also be affected by the** substance transient** as we can also see in the above figure.